I’ve been trying to write these histories for a while, but there’s SO MUCH to cover that I’ve finally decided to break it up into juicy little bite-size bits. To reward myself for deciding, I’m going to start with one of the juiciest: the tangled web of interrelations between the family of Welsh Marcher Lord William De Braose and Welsh Prince of Gwynedd Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (“the Great”).
Let’s start with the family of William De Braose (the younger – I’ll call him “our” William to differentiate him from his grandfather, William 4th Lord of Bramber), to whom I am directly related in three ways on both my mother’s and father’s sides.
William De Braose, Lord of Abergavenny and son of Reginald De Braose by his first wife Grecia di Briwere (look below for more of Reginald’s marital history), married Eva Marshall and had four daughters:
– Isabella de Braose, who married Llywelyn ap Iorwerth’s only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn
– Maud de Braose, who married Marcher lord Roger Mortimer (grandson of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth) – this is my father’s line
– Eleanor de Braose, who married Humphrey deBohun – this is my mother’s line
– Eva de Braose, who married William Cantelou, and who only has this one notation in our story. Sorry, Eva!
Next, let’s outline Llywelyn ap Iorwerth’s family. Llywelyn, also known as “Llywelyn Fawr” and “Llyweyn the Great”, was Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. He married Joan Plantagenet, illegitimate daughter of King John (yes, the King John who is the baddie in so many Robin Hood tales. He also signed the Magna Carta, but I’m more excited by the fact that I have an ancestor who’s been animated by Disney and voiced by Peter Ustinov. I’m a weenie, I know.)
In later years, Llywelyn had Joan legitimized by the Pope in an effort to strengthen his legitimate son Dafydd’s claim to inherit, rather than his older but illegitimate son Gruffydd. His children by Joan are:
– Dafydd, married Isabella de Braose
– Elen Ferch Llywelyn, married 3 times. Not in our story (as far as I know)
– Susannah Ferch Llywelyn, who died below marriageable age & isn’t part of our story
– Gwladus Ddu (“the Dark”), married 1st Reginald de Braose, then 2nd Ralph de Mortimer
– Angharad Ferch Llywelyn, who’s not in our story
– Marared or Margaret Ferch Llywelyn, who married 1st John de Braose and 2nd Walter Clifford (my dad’s lineage comes down through Walter)
– Elen The Younger Ferch Llywelyn, whose daughter later married Robert The Bruce and mothered the first Stuart king. However, that’s all we have to say about her.
Our story begins in 1205, when Llywelyn married Joan, daughter of King John, while his relationship with John was still cordial. Things between Llywelyn and the King went sour around 1210, however, possibly because of Llywelyn’s alliance with William de Braose (4th Lord of Bramber, the grandfather of “our” William de Braose via Reginald), who had been stripped of his lands by King John and cast into disgrace.
William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber and the grandfather of “our” William de Braose, had been Lord of Gower, Abergavenny, Brecknock, Builth, Radnor, Kington, Limerick, Glamorgan, Skenfrith, Briouze in Normandy, Grosmont, and White Castle (sliders!!), before falling out with King John and losing his lands. (And he went on the run, but his wife Maud St. Valéry, my 27th great-grandmother, and his eldest son William, were caught and killed by King John. But that’s a story for another day!)
In 1215, Llywelyn’s daughter Gwladus Ddu married (as her first husband) Reginald de Braose, the son of William de Braose 4th Lord of Bramber; but although they may have had a daughter, she’s not part of our line or our story. You may recall Reginald de Braose from above; he’s the father of “our” William. After Reginald’s death, she married Ralph de Mortimer and had a son, Roger Mortimer.
Confused yet? Oh, just wait. 😀 I love this, but I’ve had to graph it out several times just to get my head around it. DRAWN FAMILY TREES ARE COMING, just hang on. Keep breathing.
So back to Llywelyn himself. In 1217, after the death of King John, Reginald de Braose was induced by the crown to change sides, betraying Llewelyn, who promptly invaded his lands. Eventually Reginald was forced to offer Llywelyn submission and cede Brecon, Swansea, and Haverford. Presumably, peace ruled for a while between the families after this exchange.
In 1228, Llywelyn was fighting against Hubert de Burgh Justiciar of England, and after the fighting was over, Llywelyn paid 2,000 pounds to the crown, a sum which he raised through the ransom of one of his prisoners: William de Braose (the younger, who is “our” William). Apparently they hit it off, because an agreement was made to marry Dafydd, Llywelyn’s son and heir, to William’s daughter Isabella.
1228 was also a big year for Llywelyn’s daughter Gwladus Ddu, whose first husband Reginald died. After this, she was married to Marcher lord Ralph de Mortimer. They would have issue including Roger Mortimer, who would later marry William’s daughter Maud.
Let’s cut back to William’s family. In 1224, his daughter Maud was born. In 1230, when Maud was six years old, William made a trip to visit his friend Llywelyn, but — oops! — was caught alone with Joan in Llywelyn’s chamber in the dead of night and subsequently hanged. The Brut y Tywysogion chronicler commented: “that year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn’s chamber with the king of England’s daughter, Llywelyn’s wife”.
“On 2nd of May, at a certain manor called ‘Crokein, he was made ‘Crogyn, i.e. hanged on a tree, and this not privily or in the night time, but openly and in the broad daylight, in the presence of more than 800 men assembled to behold the piteous and melancholy spectacle.”
—Abbot of Vaundey as quoted by J.E. Lloyd., History of Wales from the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest, page 213.
After Llywelyn killed William de Braose, a message was sent to his widow Eva Marshall to ask her if she would still agree to Isabella’s marriage with Llywelyn’s son Dafydd. One can only imagine what Isabella thought; but the marriage was allowed to go forward, and later in 1230 Isabella and Dafydd were married. Isabella was very young, probably around 8 years old.
It appears that Joan and Llywelyn died in the same year, 1237. After his death, his son Dafydd succeeded him, but he and Isabella de Braose had no heirs, and when Dafydd died in 1246, Llywelyn’s greatly diminished legacy passed to Gryfydd’s son, Llywelyn ap Gryfydd. He will show up again later on our blog, in conjunction with one of my other ancestors. MWAHAHAHAHAAA! (giving my imaginary mustache an evil twirl) Among the poets who lamented Llywelyn the Great’s passing was Einion Wan:
True lord of the land – how strange that today
He rules not o’er Gwynedd;
Lord of nought but the piled up stones of his tomb,
Of the seven-foot grave in which he lies.
We’ve talked about the eventual fate of Dafydd, and of Gryfydd’s heir; now let’s go back to Llywelyn’s daughter Gwladus “The Dark”. Gwladus had been married to Reginald de Braose, Maud and Isabella’s grandfather, but Reginald died in 1230. Gwladus then married Ralph de Mortimer, and they had a son Roger.
Roger subsequently married Maud de Braose in 1247, thereby becoming Isabella’s brother-in-law *and* nephew by marriage, and Dafydd’s brother-in-law *and* nephew by blood.
To finish up our little love knot, there is Marared or Margaret, another daughter of Llywelyn. In 1219, she married John de Braose, whose grandfather was William 4th Lord of Bramber. He was cousin to “our” William, who was father of Maud, Isabella, and Eleanor. Whew!
– John was Gwladus’ brother-in-law, Dafydd’s brother-in-law, Roger’s uncle through Marared/Margaret’s sister Gwladus, Maud’s 1st cousin once removed, Roger’s 1st cousin once removed through Roger’s marriage to Maud, Isabella’s brother-in-law, Isabella’s 1st cousin once removed, and 1st cousin once removed to brother-in-law Dafydd through Dafydd’s marriage to Isabella
– Isabella was both Roger’s sister-in-law and aunt by marriage to Dafydd
– Maud was Isabella’s sister and also her niece by marriage to Roger, and daughter-in-law and step-granddaughter of Gwladus
– Llywelyn became father-in-law to Isabella and grandfather-by-marriage to Maud after killing their father. IMAGINE FAMILY HOLIDAYS. THE AWKWARDNESS.
– Probably more, but my head is spinning and I need to stop now.
Here are my family tree scribbles. I hope they help clarify things. I certainly needed to draw them so I could keep track of who was marrying whom. Yeesh!
I’ll finish by apologizing for any errors, especially in degree or name of relationship; I’m still learning about who’s “once-removed” as opposed to a 2nd cousin, and this is a messy enough knot to confuse anyone. Well, almost anyone. :} If you spot any errors, I would appreciate kind corrections in comments. Thank you!!
(some of my sources – I’ve favored Wikipedia because the person pages are interlinked, they often include references, and seem mostly correct.)
– Castle Wales’ page on Llywelyn ap Iorwerth
– Pen Y Bryn, the Princes’ Tower – Llywelyn & Joan’s home
– Castle Wales’ page on the Kings of Gwynedd
– Llywelyn’s page at English Monarchs site
– Llywelyn the Great in “A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest” Vol 2, by Sir John Edward Lloyd (1911) Llywelyn’s part starts on P 612, “Early Manhood” and goes until at least p 693.
– Sharon K. Penman’s link to interesting research on the family tree. Includes some of the questions about the maternity of the children, and the reasons many researchers tend towards the view I’ve outlined in the previous post.
Related to her book about this family.
– Joan’s grave
– Wikipedia’s entry on Joan
– Joan, Lady of Wales on English Monarchs site
– “Thirteenth Century England X: Proceedings of the Durham Conference 2003” – Joan’s part starts on p 81 and continues, with a lot of information about our subsequent characters, including William de Braose the younger.
Dafydd ap Llywelyn:
– Wikipedia entry on Dafydd
– Wikipedia on Gwladus
– More information can be found in “Thirteenth Century England X”, under Joan above
Marared or Margaret ferch Llywelyn:
– Halhead family tree including Margaret
William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber:
– Wikipedia entry
– Another page on William
– Matthew Boulter’s dissertation on William
– Michael Family site on William and his wife, Maud
Reginald de Braose
Isabella de Braose:
– Wikipedia entry on Isabella; has more info on her father’s death
Maud de Braose
– Maud on Wikipedia
Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer